Policy Summaries and Analyses

The Food Policy Research Center delivers comprehensive, integrated Policy Analyses and Issue Briefs of some of today’s complex food issues. The goal is to inform policymakers, industry representatives, and consumers of the science behind the issues. Each Policy Analysis and Issue Brief involves an interdisciplinary research team comprised of at least one author and several scientific reviewers incorporating economic, environmental, social, health, governmental, and legislative considerations.

Issue Briefs are presented using balanced and un-biased science in a straightforward one to two-page format using plain language. Topic areas identified by various commodity groups and legislative staffers helped determine the critical issues for Analyses.

We welcome your comments and recommendations for future Analyses. Share your thoughts by contacting Carol Peterson at fprc@umn.edu or 612-625-8709.

Agriculture
  • Issue Brief: Changing Agricultural Climate: Implications for Innovation Policies

    Authors: Jason Beddow, Philip Pardey and Mark Seeley, College of Food, Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences; University of Minnesota.

    Summary of Findings:

    • Average temperatures are rising, both globally and in the Midwest United States.
    • Rainfall is increasing on average in the Midwest while also becoming more unpredictable on any given farm.
    • Episodes of extreme air moisture content are increasing, affecting both animal and plant agriculture.
    • Agriculture is especially sensitive to the ever-changing natural environments in which it operates.
    • Agricultural producers can respond to variations in climate given the right know-how and technologies.
    • Choices made now will have long-run implications for the productivity and competitiveness of U.S. agriculture.

    Issue Brief: Changing Agricultural Climate: Implications for Innovation Policies | PDF

  • Issue Brief: Do Alternative Livestock Production Systems Yield Safer Food?

    Authors: Cara Cherry, Peter Davies, John Deen, and Fernando Sampedro, College of Veterinary Medicine; University of Minnesota.

    Summary of Findings:

    • Food products from alternative livestock production systems are increasing in popularity among consumers.
    • Limited research exists examining differences in food safety between conventional and alternative animal production systems.
    • There appears to be no difference in rates of Campylobacter, Salmonella, and E. coli in animals raised in conventional or alternative systems.
    • Animals raised in outdoor environments have an increased exposure to parasites and environmental contaminants.

    Issue Brief: Do Alternative Livestock Production Systems Yield Safer Food? | PDF

  • Issue Brief: Pigs and MRSA: What Are the Human Health Risks and to Whom?

    Author: Peter Davies, College of Veterinary Medicine; University of Minnesota.

    Summary of Findings:

    • MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) has been a major cause of human infections for over 50 years, particularly in hospitals. MRSA is among the foremost bacteria of concern regarding antimicrobial resistance.
    • From the mid 1990s, MRSA epidemiology changed globally as new MRSA variants caused infections in otherwise healthy people having no exposure to hospitals.
    • Since 2004, the discovery of novel MRSA variants in livestock has raised concerns about potential public health impacts of animal reservoirs of MRSA.
    • A specific MRSA lineage (ST398) is the focus of concern in livestock. ST398 was unknown before being found in patients in the Netherlands who had exposure to pig farms. ST398 MRSA is now known to occur in many countries and species (cattle, poultry, and horses).
    • Exposure to MRSA from livestock is a concern for people working with live animals (farmers, veterinarians). Risk to the general public via other routes appears minimal.
    • MRSA of livestock origin are less likely to persist and spread in people than MRSA of human origin. No community outbreak of ST398 MRSA infection has been reported anywhere, nor has a single case of clinical infection been reported in the United States of America (USA).
    • The impact of ST398 MRSA on human illness has been very low. Policy strategies to reduce ST398 should be assessed with respect to feasibility and cost prior to implementation.

    Issue Brief: Pigs and MRSA: What Are the Human Health Risks and to Whom? | PDF

Antibiotics
  • Issue Brief: Balancing the Health Impacts of Antibiotic Use in Animal Feed

    Authors: William Hueston, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota (UMN); James R. Johnson, Medical School Department of Medicine, UMN; Michael Osterholm and Jamie Umber, Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy, UMN; and Kirk Smith, Minnesota Department of Health.

    Summary of Findings

    • Antibiotics are important for both animal and human health and welfare.
    • Administration of antibiotics through feed or water is often the most humane and labor-efficient method of treating groups of animals such as chickens, pigs, or fish.
    • Administration of antibiotics to food-producing animals – like all antibiotic use, regardless of setting or route of administration – contributes to the development of antibiotic resistance.
    • While the human health and economic implications of resistance vary widely depending on antibiotics and pathogens of concern, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and World Health Organization (WHO) conclude that feeding certain antibiotics for production purposes (i.e., growth promotion or increased feed efficiency) is a public health problem.
    • Current science supports three complementary food animal-related strategies for maintaining the benefits of antibiotic use for animal health and welfare while reducing the antibiotic resistance risks: elimination of long term, low dose use of most antibiotics for production purposes; good animal husbandry practices; and more judicious use of antibiotics in prevention and control of disease in food animals.

    Issue Brief: Balancing the Health Impacts of Antibiotic Use in Animal Feed | PDF

Food and Nutrition
  • Issue Brief: School Meal Regulation and Child Nutrition: Environmental Approaches to Improve Intake

    Authors: Sarah Berkowitz, Jamie Coborn, Tashara Leak, Sue Sing Lim, Alison Swenson, Arwa Zahid, Marla Reicks, College of Food, Agriculture and Natural Resource Sciences; University of Minnesota.

    Summary of Findings:

    • The School Breakfast Program (SBP) and National School Lunch Program (NSLP) requirements have recently been updated to improve the healthfulness of school meals.
    • For these changes to improve children’s health status, efforts must be made to increase the acceptance and consumption of the available healthful foods.
    • Behavioral economic approaches change the choice architecture to make the healthful choice the default option; often healthful choices are more convenient or visually appealing than less healthful choices. Thus, these approaches can nudge students toward healthful choices and increase intake of healthful foods.
    • Effective behavioral economic strategies should be incorporated into federally funded nutrition programs.

    Issue Brief: School Meal Regulation and Child Nutrition: Environmental Approaches to Improve Intake | PDF

  • Issue Brief: Food Loss and Waste in the US: The Science Behind the Supply Chain

    Authors: Alexander H. Reich and Jonathan A. Foley, Institute on the Environment; University of Minnesota.

    Summary of Findings:

    • Roughly 40% of the United States (US) food supply (1500 calories/person/day) is never eaten, which
      is among the highest rates of food loss globally. Addressing this loss could help reduce food
      insecurity and the environmental impacts of agriculture.
    • Tremendous resources are used to produce uneaten food in the US: 30% of fertilizer, 31% of
      cropland, 25% of total freshwater consumption, and 2% of total energy consumption.
    • Food waste generated when people discard food in homes and foodservice accounts for 60% of food
      loss, is mostly avoidable, and is under-emphasized as an opportunity to improve the food system.
    • Targeting efforts on reducing waste of meat has great potential to benefit both the environment and
      the household budget.
    • Clarifying the meaning of date labels on foods could also reduce consumer food waste.

    Issue Brief: Food Loss and Waste in the US: The Science  | PDF

    Accompanying YouTube Video: "Love Letter to Food"

  • Analysis: A Controlled Experiment to Reduce Menu Item Portion Sizes

    Authors: Sarah Berkowitz, Leonard Marquart, Elton Mykerezi, and Marla Reicks, College of Food, Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences, University of Minnesota; Dennis Degeneffe, Consumer Centric Solutions LLC.

    Summary of Analysis: 

    Providing Flexible Food Portions in a Restaurant Setting: Impact on Business Operations, Food Consumption and Food Waste

    • Increased portion sizes of meals outside the home are associated with increased energy intake, obesity, and lower diet quality.
    • Large portion sizes have a major influence on waste in food service operations.
    • Consumption and food waste decrease with smaller portion sizes.
    • Customer satisfaction improves with the addition of reduced.

    Analysis Abstract (PDF) | Analysis Poster (PDF) 

Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA)
  • Issue Brief: Issues relating to the regulation of the milk food chain: Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO) versus Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) rules

    Authors: Ana Ebbert, School of Public Health and Kaylee Myhre Errecaborde, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota.

    Summary of Findings

    • The complex process of collecting raw milk from a dairy cow and transforming it into a safe, palatable, consumer-ready milk product has been considered at high risk for accidental or intentional contamination.
    • The production of Grade A, consumer-ready milk products has been regulated by the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO) in the United States (US) since 1927 to prevent accidental contamination of the product.
    • While other industries have been exempted from some of the new legislation under the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), the dairy industry has been included in a rule established to prevent intentional contamination of food.
    • Controversy exists over whether the dairy industry should be required to comply with this regulation in FSMA since the PMO has been protecting the US milk supply to date.

    Issue Brief: Issues relating to the regulation of the milk food chain: Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO) versus Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) rules l PDF

  • Issue Brief: General Overview of the Food Safety Modernization Act

    Authors: Shaun Kennedy and Kaylee Myhre Errecaborde, College of Veterinary Medicine; University of Minnesota.

    Summary of Findings:

    • Everyone has a role in the “food safety continuum”. The job of the FDA is to regulate food safety; it is the responsibility of each company to ensure the safety of their food products until the consumer takes over responsibility.
    • FSMA is in the midst of a lengthy rule making and guidance process, which means the FDA is turning the bill passed by Congress into actual rules and regulations and related guidance documents.
    • Guidance documents, while not regulations, can be equally as important to industry as formal regulations. Failing to follow issued guidance could significantly increase liability risk in the event of a food safety incident.
    • Most proposed regulations are released and then open for public comment. In hopes of making the final regulations beneficial, it is important that stakeholders included in this legislation are active and vocal about their needs.

    Issue Brief: General Overview of the Food Safety Modernization Act | PDF

Genetically Engineered Foods
  • Analysis: Comparing Public Attitudes Towards Genetically-Modified and Nanotechnology-Based Foods and Labeling

    Authors: Jennifer Kuzma, Humphrey School of Public Affairs, University of North Carolina State University; Chengyan Yue, Applied Economics, College of Food, Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences, University of Minnesota.

    Summary of Analysis:

    Using the data collected, authors employ various statistical models to capture the differences in consumer preferences and have identified four segment groups in which consumers can be summarized:

    1. “Price Oriented/Technology Adopters,”
    2. “Technology Averse,”
    3. “Benefit Oriented/Technology Accepters,”
    4. “New Technology Rejecters.”

    Analysis Abstract (PDF)

  • Issue Brief: Safety Assessment of Genetically Engineered Foods: U.S. Policy and Current Science

    Authors: Jennifer Kuzma and Rachel Haase, Humphrey School of Public Affairs; University of Minnesota.

    Summary of Findings

    • Safety of GE foods is evaluated through the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s voluntary consultation process.
    • The FDA can take action if food, including GE food, presents a demonstrable safety risk post-market.
    • GE safety studies focus on toxicity, adverse nutritional changes, allergenicity and horizontal gene transfer.
    • Scientific studies testing whole GE food show some mixed results so statements about all GE foods being safe or unsafe are unwarranted.
    • Whole-food feeding studies for GE safety assessment are tricky, as plant varieties are diverse in chemical composition and the effect of the introduced genes or changes caused by them are hard to tease out.
    • Strong agreement exists for better testing protocols, especially for allergenicity and whole-food feeding trials.

    Issue Brief: Safety Assessment of Genetically Engineered Foods: U.S. Policy and Current Science | PDF

  • Issue Brief: Considering the Mandatory Labeling of Genetically-Engineered (GE) Foods in the U.S.

    Author: Benjamin Senauer, College of Food, Agriculture and Natural Resource Sciences, University of Minnesota.

    Summary of Findings:

    • Over 25 U.S. states, including Minnesota, are considering legislation to label GE foods.
    • The major arguments for mandatory labeling include the consumer’s right to know, genetic engineering is still controversial, some do not trust the government regulatory process, many countries already require labeling, and a majority support it in polls.
    • The major arguments against mandatory labeling include viewing it as a false warning that GE foods are risky, consumers already have GE-free options such as organic products, the difference between a right and need to know, consumer choice could be reduced, and the cost of food could increase.
    • State labeling laws are likely to face legal challenges. Federal action is unlikely. However, one grocery chain has already taken action to require GE-product labeling and other food companies may also.

    Issue Brief: Considering the Mandatory Labeling of Genetically-Engineered (GE) Foods in the U.S. | PDF

Policy
  • Issue Brief: Statewide Food Policy Councils: Considerations for Minnesota Policymakers

    Authors: Noelle Harden, Sheila Onzere, Sally Dover, Anne Dybsetter, and Stephanie Heim. University of Minnesota Extension
     

    Summary of Findings
    • Statewide food policy councils (Councils) are cross-sector bodies that help states comprehensively address food system objectives related to agriculture, health, economic development, and the environment.
    • Councils have engaged in several activities relevant to Minnesota such as developing food charters, spearheading policies that support farm-to-school efforts, and supporting local and regional councils.
    • Challenges for Councils include working with diverse stakeholders, reliance on a voluntary workforce, and lack of financial or political support.
    • Councils overcome challenges with the support of inclusive leadership, members who can establish common ground, and resources like legislative buy-in and funding.

    Issue Brief: Statewide Food Policy Councils: Considerations for Minnesota Policy Makers l Download PDF

  • Analysis: Public Opinion about an Emerging Food Policy Issue: Where Evidence, Policy, and Politics Intersect

    Authors: Sarah Gollust, Assistant Professor, Health Policy and Management, University of Minnesota (UMN); Wendy Rahn, Professor of Political Science, UMN.

    Summary of Analysis Findings:

    • Raw milk, until recently, has been a low-salience issue in both the national and regional media. In the last few years, however, the overall volume of media coverage of raw milk has expanded, but media attention in this period is characterized by distinctive spikes rather than a gradual increase in the issue’s prominence.
    • Supporters and opponents of raw milk compete to frame the issue, offering a relatively small set of arguments for and against the sale of raw milk that employ a combination of scientific evidence and political and personal values.
    • Framing access to raw milk as an issue of consumer choice is more persuasive than the opposing frame of health risks.
    • Differences of opinion between Democrats and Republicans are smaller on the question of raw milk regulation than other food policy issues, but providing political party cues in addition to framing arguments widens the gap between them. Differences between partisan groups on raw milk policy are smallest when the issue is presented as one that involves consumer choice.

    Analysis Abstract (PDF)
     

  • Issue Brief: Dairy Subtitle to the 2013 Farm Bill: Critical Issues and Options

    Authors: Marin Bozic, Department of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota; John Newton and Cameron S. Thraen, Department of Agricultural, Environmental and Development Economics, Ohio State University.

    Summary of Findings:

    • 2013 House and Senate Farm Bills provide major reforms to federal dairy policy, re-orienting dairy safety net programs from supporting milk revenue to protecting dairy income over feed cost (IOFC) margins. Proposed 2013 House and Senate Farm Bills are likely to be very effective in providing catastrophic dairy margin insurance. If effective, the Senate stabilization program would reduce the duration of low-margin periods. However, if the stability of net farm incomes is substantially increased, then milk supply response may result in reduced average IOFC margins.
    • Contrary to current Title I commodity programs, these dairy reforms impose no eligibility constraints with respect to farm size or adjusted growth income. As such, the new dairy policy in the 2013 Farm Bill is expected to increase the share of total program benefits accruing to large farm operations.2,5 Under the Milk Income Loss Contract program (MILC), farms with less than 100 cows (76% of farms; 18% of milk production) account for 42% of net payments and farms over 1000 cows (2% of farms; 42% of milk production) account for 6% of net payments. Under the new policy regime farms with fewer than 100 cows will get 17-21% of net program benefits, and farms over 1000 cows will get 36-43% of benefits.
    • Expected costs of 2013 Farm Bill dairy policy proposals are found to be up to three times as high as the expected costs of continuing the 2008 Farm Bill dairy programs. The proposed Senate stabilization program may reduce costs of 2013 Farm bill programs between 5% and 30% relative to standalone margin insurance, with results highly sensitive to modeling assumptions regarding the program participation rate and elasticity of demand for dairy foods.
    • The ability to make annual coverage decisions immediately before the coverage period starts encourages dairy producers to use the new programs strategically. When forecasted margins are above average, the profit-maximizing decision for producers is to forfeit supplemental margin insurance. When forecasted margins are much below average, producers are likely to over insure, and buy very high margin coverage levels. By instituting a six-months gap between a sign-up date and the beginning of the coverage period, participants’ ability to forecast margins over the coverage period would be substantially reduced, and enrollment decisions would be based on the need for risk protection, rather than the opportunity for rent extraction. This change would preserve low and affordable premium levels, while reducing the expected program outlays by at least 20%.

    Issue Brief: Dairy Subtitle to the 2013 Farm Bill: Critical Issues and Options | PDF

Public Health
  • Issue Brief: Regulation of Raw Milk Sales and Implications for Public Health

    Authors: Will Hueston, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota (UMN); Laura Pickrell, School of Public Health, UMN.

    Summary of Findings:

    • Consumer demand exists for the sale of unpasteurized (i.e., raw) milk, driven by a number of consumer interests including: taste preference, belief about health benefits, desire to consume local food, concern that pasteurization masks ‘dirty’ milk, interest in ‘right to choose’, and arguments that producers can encourage beneficial microbes and thereby control the presence of harmful bacteria in raw milk .
    • Current Minnesota law allows “occasional” sale of raw milk only by dairy producers on the farm where the milk was produced.
    • Public health investigations have identified links between raw milk consumption and foodborne illness outbreaks caused by a range of pathogens in Minnesota and other states.
    • Children are at greatest risk of serious illness and death from raw milk consumption.
    • Pasteurization of milk began in the 1920s in the United States (US), and became a widespread practice by the 1950s. Use of pasteurization led to a reduction in foodborne diseases commonly linked to unpasteurized milk.
    • Scientific evidence suggests that relaxing Minnesota regulation of raw milk sales will result in increased illness and more multi-person outbreaks.
    • While sanitation inspections and regular product testing may decrease the health risks of raw milk, multiple policy options exist regarding regulation of raw milk sales. 

    Issue Brief: Regulation of Raw Milk Sales and Implications for Public Health | PDF

  • Issue Brief: Hunting Ammunition and Implications for Public Health

    Author: Julia Ponder, School of Public Health; University of Minnesota.

    Summary of Findings:

    • Multiple types of hunting ammunition are available with varying ballistics and public health implications
    • Game meat harvested with lead ammunition may be contaminated with lead fragments.
    • Ingestion of lead fragments in game meat may present health risks, especially to women and children. There is no level of lead exposure in children known to be without adverse effects.
    • Public health risks can be mitigated by use of alternative hunting ammunitions.  

    Issue Brief: Hunting Ammunition and Implications for Public Health | PDF

  • Issue Brief: Backyard Poultry: Implications for Public Health and Safety

    Authors: Tanya Bailey & Jean Larson, Minnesota Landscape Arboretum; University of Minnesota.

    Summary of Findings:

    • Keeping backyard poultry is predominately regulated at the local level through county and city ordinances and zoning.
    • Keeping backyard poultry as pets may contribute to overall human well-being through their companionship.
    • Backyard poultry also can expose people to disease; live birds can appear healthy and show no sign of illness while carrying germs and bacteria that can make humans sick.
    • Children, the elderly, pregnant women and individuals with compromised immune systems are at the greatest risk of getting disease from backyard poultry.
    • Prevention practices can help minimize or eliminate infectious disease transmission, including thorough hand washing with soap and water after handling poultry, poultry feed, equipment or eggs; proper food preparation of poultry and eggs; and supervising children when handling live poultry.

    Issue Brief: Backyard Poultry: Implications for Public Health and Safety | PDF

  • Issue Brief: Food Irradiation and Public Health

    Authors: Michael Boland, Food Industry Center, University of Minnesota; and Sean Fox, Department of Agricultural Economics; Kansas State University.

    Summary of Findings:

    • The US Centers for Disease Control and the World Health Organization recognize the potential of food irradiation to prevent many infectious diseases that are transmitted by meat, poultry, fresh produce and other foods.
    • Irradiation has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to kill harmful and spoilage bacteria and pests on fruits, vegetables, spices, raw poultry and red meats, and wheat flour.
    • Use of irradiation would improve food security by reducing foodborne illness and reducing food waste by spoilage. Approved levels of irradiation do not sterilize food and are not a substitute for proper food handling.
    • Food irradiation currently is underutilized, most likely due to limited processing capacity, demand uncertainty, consumer perceptions and the feelings of some organizations that more research is needed.

    Issue Brief: Food Irradiation and Public Health | PDF

Salmonella
  • Issue Brief: Potential Impacts of Classifying Specific Strains of Salmonella with Multi-Drug Resistance as Adulterants in Ground Beef and Poultry Products

    Authors: Craig W. Hedberg, School of Public Heath, Jeff B. Bender, Fernando Sampedro, Scott J. Wells, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota.

    Summary of Findings

    • The U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) considers strains of Salmonella resistant to multiple antibiotics (multi-drug resistant or MDR Salmonella) to be serious public health concerns, leading to proposals to declare them to be adulterants in ground beef and poultry.
    • With current technology, it is impossible to produce Salmonella-free raw meat and poultry.
    • Available methods to detect and confirm MDR Salmonella are not suitable to support regulatory intervention on the scale that would be required by the proposed policy.
    • Declaring MDR Salmonella an adulterant in ground beef and poultry would likely have greater costs and fewer public health benefits in comparison to when E. coli O157:H7 was declared an adulterant.
    • Additional analyses are needed to identify more effective public health interventions to address MDR Salmonella.
       

    Issue Brief: Potential Impacts of Classifying Specific Strains of Salmonella with MDR as Adulterants  l  PDF

  • Issue Brief: Potential Impacts of a Zero Tolerance Policy for Salmonella on Raw Meat and Poultry

    Authors: Craig W. Hedberg, School of Public Heath, Jeff B. Bender, Fernando Sampedro, Scott J. Wells, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota.

    Summary of Findings

    • Although prevalence of Salmonella in raw meat and poultry has declined, human illness due to Salmonella has not decreased over the past 15 years.
    • High-profile outbreaks and the proportion of Salmonella cases that are attributed to raw meat and poultry products have created a demand for new strategies to control Salmonella in these products.
    • The United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) previously used zero tolerance policies to control E. coli O157 in ground beef. Some have suggested that this serves as precedent for similar action for Salmonella in meat and poultry products.
    • Enacting zero tolerance policies for Salmonella will not necessarily produce the desired public health outcomes and may lead to unsustainable increases in the number of meat and poultry products that would be held and recalled, with the potential for increased costs for producers, distributors, and consumers.
       

    Issue Brief: Potential Impacts of a Zero Tolerance Policy for Salmonella on Raw Meat and Poultry  l  PDF

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)
  • Analysis: Are Food Stamps Income or Food Supplementation? A Meta-Analysis

    Authors: Joel Cuffey and Timothy K.M. Beatty, Department of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota (UMN); and Lisa Harnack  School of Public Health, UMN.

    Summary of Analysis:

    • Understanding how participants in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (or SNAP), treat the benefits received is crucial to evaluating proposals concerning the future direction of the program.
    • Studies that have attempted to answer the question of whether recipients view “food stamp” benefits as income or as food supplementation, have used very different methods and come to very different conclusions.
    • This analysis provides a comprehensive literature review and, using meta-analytic methods, provides a systematic evaluation of prior studies to investigate sources of study diversity.

    Abstract Analysis (PDF)

  • Issue Brief: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Family Nutrition

    Authors: Timothy Beatty, Department of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota; Lisa Harnack, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota

    Summary of Findings:

    • SNAP has been shown to significantly reduce rates of food insecurity. 
    • SNAP participants are disproportionately obese and have poorer diet quality in comparison to income eligible non-participants.
    • Strategies have been proposed for reshaping SNAP so that it better meets its objective to help people and families buy the food they need for good health.
    • However, research is lacking to demonstrate potential effectiveness of these proposed program changes. 

    Issue Brief: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Family Nutrition | PDF

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  • Last modified on September 15, 2014